According to laboratory and field studies by the University of Florida in Gainesville, Geraniol, the active ingredient in BugBand insect repellent, has been proven effective in repelling a wide variety of insects, including mosquitoes, house flies, stable flies, horn flies, cockroaches, fire ants, fleas, gnats, dog ticks, lone star ticks, and no-see-ums. Geraniol, the active ingredient in BugBand insect repelling products, is a natural essential oil derived from geraniums. When Geraniol is exclusively formulated with other minimum risk or food-grade ingredients, the resulting insect repellent products are not regulated pesticides when they meet federally established criteria. Geraniol is a biodegradable ingredient that is safe to use and safe for the environment. There is no known toxicity to animals or wildlife.